Paper model of tank B1
Materials and tools:
- scissors, paper knife, drawing ruler
- glue brushes and paint;
- watercolors (or pencils), toothpicks;
- clear acrylic glue ("Moment", etc.);
- to print the model matte photo paper with a density of 170-180 g / m2; for small parts - 70-80 g / m2.
- Before you assemble the part, read the drawings and instructions. Determine the place of each part and imagine its assembly;
- Make holes in details before cutting out the part;
- Cut only the part (s) you need right now. Unpacked items in a box, and unused sheets in a closed folder (as an option). Throwing out trash after work, carefully inspect the scrap paper;
- To better fold the part, it is necessary to hold the ruler along the fold line, pressing lightly with the blunt side of the knife or a toothpick so as not to damage the paper surface. Better to do it from the wrong side of the part;
- Keep your fingers clean and be sure to use wipes to wipe your hands, because hands may get dirty in the process;
- wind up cylindrical parts before gluing onto a round object of a suitable diameter, this will give them shape;
- Before gluing it is necessary to paint the ends of the part. White crop lines spoil the overall look of the model. To paint the ends, use watercolors or gouache paints. After selecting the desired color, apply them in a thin layer, then allow the paint to dry. About markers better to forget;
- Take your time with gluing. First, cut out the part, paint it from the end, wait for the paint to dry, assemble the part. Attach it to the place where it should be to make sure everything is done correctly. And only then stick. Do not forget to let the glue dry.
A bit of history
French heavy tank B1 (fr. Char de bataille B1)
B1 (fr. Char de bataille B1) - French heavy tank of the 1930s. It was developed since 1921. But the armament was adopted only in March 1934. During serial production, from 1935 to June 15, 1940, 403 B1 tanks were produced in various versions.B1 was actively used in battles with German troops in May-June 1940, despite the hefty archaic structure, showing excellent security. After the capitulation of France, almost half of the cars produced were captured by the Wehrmacht and used by them until 1945, also serving as the basis for creating self-propelled artillery systems and flame-throwing tanks on their base. In total, the Germans got 161 tanks, renamed them Pz. Kpfw. B2 740 (f). Of these, 16 tanks were converted into 105-mm ACS, and about 60 more tanks into flamer tanks.
The history of the future B1 began shortly after the end of the First World War, in June 1920, when a promising program of post-war tank building was adopted. One of the concepts of the tank envisaged by this program was the "battle tank" »(fr.Chardebataille),whichwouldoccupyanintermediatepositionbetweenlightinfantrysupporttanks,suchastheFT-17andheavy«fortresstanks»(fr.Chardeforteresse),suchasChar2C.Inadditiontoinfantrysupport,abattletank» should have been able to independently carry out their tasks, including the fight against enemy armored vehicles. Although General Estienne,actively promoting this concept and subsequently leading the work on the “battle tank”, assumed the use of such tanks as part of fully mechanized units of the motorized infantry, the Infantry Directorate, under the control of which after the war formally passed all tank forces, soon formally classified the future tank as a means of supporting infantry. B1 in Germany as a trophy got the name PzKpfw b2 749t.
The initial tactical and technical requirements for the new tank were formulated in January 1921. Five companies that already had experience in tank production were involved in the development: “la Delone-Belleville”, FAMH (“la Saint-Chamond”), FCM and who worked together on «Renault»and&la;Schneider</RTI> Each company had to develop its own project, on the basis of which prototype tests were supposed to create a single project that would include the best solutions presented. The order for the production of the future tank, potentially numbering hundreds of copies, was to be distributed among all participating firms, which, in turn, were expected to fully cooperate and use their best design finds in a joint venture.
The development of the new tank was hampered by a number of reasons, the main of which was the meager funding of the army during the 1920s. Moreover, its creation was hampered even by the League of Nations, in the light of the pacifist sentiment that prevailed in it, considering the development of such a powerful tank that was supposed to be mass-produced as preparation for war by France and threatening it with economic sanctions. Nevertheless, in May 1924, all firms were able to present their prototypes. The Delaunay-Belleville project »ItwasessentiallyanimprovedversionoftheFT-17andwasrejectedatanearlystage,asnotconformingtotheprojectconditions.Allotherprojectshadasimilarlayout,withthelocationoftheguninthefrontalpartofthehullandaturretwithmachine-gunarmament.TheFCMprototype,FCM21,usedanumberofsolutionspreviouslyusedon2Ctanksbuiltbythesamecompany,inparticularsuspensionelementsandstroboscopicviewinginstruments.OntheFAMHprototype,achassisfromtheself-propelledgunsofthesamecompanywasused,alsousedontheSaint-Chamonixtank,anditsarmamentconsistedofa75-mmcannoninthebodyandtwomachinegunsintheturret.«Schneider»and«Renault» jointly presented two prototypes, the SRA and SRB, which had a different chassis and different tools - a short-barreled 75-mm cannon on the SRA and a long-barreled 47-mm cannon on the SRB. Both prototypes used the same turret with two machine guns. The tanks and the propulsion system differed in the models presented, FCM and FAHM prototypes were equipped with Panar engines, while both Renault and Schneider prototypes were equipped with Renault engines.
The test results allowed by March 1925 to more accurately formulate the terms of reference. The mass of the future tank was to be 19-22 tons, and its armor was supposed to protect all types of infantry weapons. The overall layout and shape was generally borrowed from the SRB. The engine "la Renault" was chosen as the power plant, in combination with the turning mechanism "la Neder" prototype fahm. The air suspension was borrowed from it, whereas the caterpillars of the type “holt” and raquo; were taken from FCM 21. The armor of the tank was supposed to be supplied by FAHM. In January 1926, FAHM, FCM and «Renault»-«Schneider»receivedordersforthemanufactureofnewprototypes,forthepurposeofconspiracydesignatedas«Tractor30»(fr.Tracteur30).UndercontractssignedinMarch1927,eachfirmhadtosubmititsownprototype.Asthemainweapon,short-barreled75-mmcannonswereselected,FAMHproductiononitandFCMprototypesandproductionofSchneider»onthethirdprototype.Auxiliaryarmamentprototypeswerethesame-twin8mmmachinegunsinthetowermodelST4.Thethicknessofthereservationbodywas25mmforverticaland10mmforhorizontalsurfaces,whilethethicknessofthecasttowerand"cutting"» driver was 35 mm.
In the conditions of meager funding, the production of prototypes was delayed, and the first of them, at number 101, was made by “la Reno” - “la” Schneider » only by March 1929. His tests continued until 1930 and, based on their results, the project was again finalized. Two new prototypes, No. 102 and No. 103, completed by September 1931, differed in the thickness of vertical booking increased to 40 mm. All three prototypes were sent to military trials. to give them the opportunity to fight at least with light tanks, in September 1932 they were installed on the tower model APX 1, armed with a short-barreled 47-mm cannon and two machine guns. Also refinements, this time no longer fundamental, were carried out in the rotation mechanism, aiming devices, radio stations and suspension.In this form, 13 years after the start of work on it, in March 1934, the new tank was put into service under the designation "Tank B1" (French Char B1).
Since 1935, tanks were built at the plants of five companies - Renault (182 units), FCM (72), Schneider (32), FAMH (70), AMX (47). Just before the cessation of production - June 15, 1940 - 403 units were manufactured.
B1 had a layout with the location of the main weapons in the frontal part of the body, and the auxiliary - in a rotating turret. The engine and transmission were located aft of the tank. The crew consisted of four people: a driver, who also served as the gunner from the main gun; loader of both guns; radio operator and tank commander, who was also a shooter and partly charging 47-mm guns.
The main armament of the B1 of all modifications was the 75-mm SA32 gun. It had a barrel length of 17.1 caliber / 1283 mm and an initial velocity of the projectile of 221 m / s (which did not allow effective penetration of armor, but the use of a weapon against infantry and fortifications). The gun was placed in the right frontal part of the body in an installation that allowed its guidance only in the vertical plane, using a screw mechanism, within -15 ° + 25 °.The gun lead was carried out from his seat by a driver who had an optical sight connected to the gun for this purpose. Ammunition on the B1 - 87, on the B1bis - 74 unitary shots with high-explosive fragmentation projectiles. The shots were placed in racks on the floor of the fighting compartment, the fuses to them were stored separately and screwed into the shells only immediately before loading. In addition to the 75-mm cannon, the driver had on the B1 - two, on the B1bis - one 7.5-mm machine gun «Chatellerault» Maud. 1931, rigidly fixed in the frontal part of the body and induced to turn the whole car.
Surveillance and Communications
ER51, ER53 or ER55 were installed on the tank. The aiming devices on all B1 are the same: telescopic sight and periscope binocular.
Engine and Transmission
Char B1: Renault engine, in-line, V-shaped, 6-cylinder, 250 hp at 1600 rpm. Transmission Naeder, hydraulic, 5-speed gearbox, double differential. Char B1bis: Renault engine, in-line, V-shaped, 6-cylinder, 307 hp at 1600 rpm. Transmission Naeder, hydraulic, 5-speed transmission with FIEUX switch, double differential.
On one side: 14 support and 2 tension rollers, front drive and rear guide wheel; track width - 460 mm (B1), 500 mm (B1bis).
Operation and Combat Application
Of the 342 combat vehicles - about 200 were destroyed in battle. Despite the frontal 60 mm armor, powerful 75 mm and 47 mm gun, B1 bis had a serious drawback - the role of the crew members. The commander directed, charged and fired from 47 mm guns, the driver-mechanic fired from 75 mm guns and machine guns. In addition to all this, German aircraft dominated the air, which made it possible to quickly detect the tank. The tank was not compact - it was difficult to hide. The defeat of France allowed the Germans to take the B1 trophy. However, in some cases, the tank showed exceptional examples of survival with the enemy’s dense fire. For example, Char B1 under the command of Pierre Biot in battle on May 16, 1940 for the village of Stoney received 140 hits, and at the same time not one vital module of the machine was put out of action.
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