Eternal flashlight without batteries

In our world, quite a few people do homemade experiments in home laboratories and workshops. For some, it is a way to assert itself, for others it is a desire to develop their abilities. And what if that would be an experiment of hastily glued details. The main thing that the device or the scheme worked. Today we will analyze just such an invention made on the knees. However, it is based on unshakable principles and laws of physics that cannot be denied. It will be a question of a flashlight that works without batteries. Perhaps someone has already seen on the Internet the simplest Faraday generator, which allows you to light a small LED from several movements of the conductor in the winding. Assemblies of a practically dead battery, an autotransformer and a transistor, which are capable of supplying a 3V LED at an initial voltage of one tenth of a volt, are also not uncommon. Here, the author went a little further, upgrading the device circuit, adding a rectifier, a supercapacitor (ionistor), resistance, and completely eliminating the power supply.As a result, the work of the flashlight has become much more stable and efficient. And if the body is shaken for several minutes, it can be charged for a long time of the LED. How it works? Let's figure it out.
Eternal flashlight without batteries

Principle of operation

The device consists of several inductors that you can assemble yourself. The primary inductance coil actually serves as a power source or completely replaces its familiar counterpart - a battery. By moving a rod of permanent magnets in it, an electric current is induced. Due to oscillatory motions, electric waves are generated in a magnetic field, emanating from a coil with a certain frequency. A rectifier or diode bridge helps to stabilize them and convert them to direct current. Without a storage tank, such a device would have to constantly shake, so the next element in the circuit is a supercapacitor, which can be charged like a battery. Next, a step-up transformer or voltage converter is connected, which consists of a toroidal ferrite coil and two windings - a base and a collector.The number of turns may be the same, and is usually 20-50. The transformer has an average junction point at opposite ends of both windings, and three outputs per transistor. The autotransformer increases scanty current pulses in sufficient for the LED to work, and a bipolar transistor is connected to control them. Similar circuitry in different sources has different names: thief joule, blocking generator, Faraday generator, etc.
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries

Required resource base for homemade

Materials:
  • PVC tube, diameter 20 mm;
  • Copper wire, diameter - 0.5 mm;
  • Low-power transverse-conductor transistor;
  • Neodymium magnets round, size 15x3 mm;
  • Diode bridge or rectifier 2W10;
  • Resistor;
  • Supercapacitor or ionistor 1F 5.5V
  • Button-switch;
  • LED white or blue for 5V;
  • Transparent epoxy glue;
  • Hot glue;
  • Plywood, cotton;
Eternal flashlight without batteriesEternal flashlight without batteries The mobile magnetic core of the coil can be either integral or assembled in parts. Neodymium magnets are selected by the inner diameter of the PVC tube. The required length of the magnetic rod is typed experimentally, through which oscillations an electric current will be created. posts / 2018-03 / medium / 1520176465_18.jpg "style =" max-width: 100%; " alt="Eternal flashlight without batteries"> Eternal flashlight without batteries The author used ten magnets 3 mm thick to gain the maximum rational length for such oscillations,and simultaneously equal to the width of the winding.
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries[center]
On the scale of the oscilloscope, you can see the difference between the potentials obtained from the oscillations of one and ten magnets. The author obtained a voltage of 4.5V from the oscillations of the magnetic rod. It also clearly shows the cyclical nature of the sinusoid at varying frequency intervals.
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
At this stage, following the example of the author, you can connect an LED directly to the outgoing ends of the coil, and check its operation. As seen in the photo, the LED responds to the movement of the magnetic rod, and the pulsed current created by it.
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Now you need to muffle both ends of the tube, so as not to hold them with your hands while shaking. For this sameusing a hacksaw, we cut out a few pigtails from plywood, cut the edges with a file, lay them with a cotton swab on the back side to soften them and put them on glue so that they do not fall out.
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
It was the turn to connect the rectifier. The diagram shown in the photo shows which two of his four contacts are connected to the coil. Such a diode bridge is capable of receiving alternating current, and output a constant strictly in one direction.
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
A step-up autotransformer will help convert low spontaneous pulses from the primary coil into sufficient voltage for the LED to work due to self-induction of one of the windings - the collector.Since it is connected to the base winding, a constant and stable electric current will be supplied to the supercapacitor in sufficient quantity. The resistor will limit the exceeding of permissible nominal values. The capacitor of sufficient capacity is also chosen by the author empirically by measuring the outgoing signals with an oscilloscope.
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
The reverse-conducting bipolar transistor, which controls the incoming electrical current to the LED, closes this circuit. You can assemble the scheme without a fee, because there are not so many details. The switch button is mounted on one of the contacts coming from the autotransformer.
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
the author preferred to assemble his improvised flashlight design with hot glue,at the same time improving the isolation of contact groups. Button switch is located on the side of the flashlight housing. The main elements of the scheme one by one the author pasted from one of the ends. The closing element remains the LED, which can be enhanced with a protective glass or reflector.
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
Eternal flashlight without batteries
The eternal flashlight without batteries
Despite the unsightly appearance of the device, suitable only for laboratory-experimental homemade, such a flashlight is quite efficient and, if necessary, will not let the darkness disappear.It is not difficult to assemble such a scheme at home and at minimal cost. A complete lack of batteries makes it a really useful device for various emergencies.

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