Ferdinand FT-SA paper model
The Ferdinand PT-SAF paper modelis a German heavy self-propelled artillery unit of the World War II class of tank destroyers.
Materials and tools:
- scissors, paper knife, drawing ruler
- glue brushes and paint;
- watercolors (or pencils), toothpicks;
- clear acrylic glue ("Moment", etc.);
- to print the model matte photo paper with a density of 170-180 g / m2; for small parts - 70-80 g / m2.
- Before you assemble the part, read the drawings and instructions. Determine the place of each part and imagine its assembly;
- Make holes in details before cutting out the part;
- Cut only the part (s) you need right now. Unpacked items in a box, and unused sheets in a closed folder (as an option). Throwing out trash after work, carefully inspect the scrap paper;
- for the best bending of the part, it is necessary to draw a ruler along the fold line, slightly pressing,the blunt side of a knife or a toothpick so as not to damage the surface of the paper. Better to do it from the wrong side of the part;
- Keep your fingers clean and be sure to use wipes to wipe your hands, because hands may get dirty in the process;
- wind up cylindrical parts before gluing onto a round object of a suitable diameter, this will give them shape;
- Before gluing it is necessary to paint the ends of the part. White crop lines spoil the overall look of the model. To paint the ends, use watercolors or gouache paints. After selecting the desired color, apply them in a thin layer, then allow the paint to dry. About markers better to forget;
- Take your time with gluing. First, cut out the part, paint it from the end, wait for the paint to dry, assemble the part. Attach it to the place where it should be to make sure everything is done correctly. And only then stick. Do not forget to let the glue dry.
A bit of history
German heavy self-propelled artillery Ferdinand
PT-ACS Ferdinand —Germanheavyself-propelledartilleryinstallationoftheperiodofWorldWarIIclasstankdestroyers.Alsocalled«Elephant»(GermanElefant— elephant), 8.8 cm PaK 43/2 Sfl L / 71 Panzerjager Tiger (P), Sturmgeschutz mit 8.8 cm PaK 43/2 and Sd.Kfz.184. This combat vehicle, armed with a 88-mm cannon, is one of the most heavily armed and powerfully armored representatives of German armored vehicles of the period. Despite its small number, this machine is the most famous representative of the class of self-propelled guns, it is associated with a large number of legends.
SAU «Ferdinand»wasdevelopedin1942&1943,beinginmanyrespectsanimprovisationbasedonthechassisoftheheavyTiger(P)developedbyFerdinandPorscheunaccountedfor.Debutof«Ferdinand»becametheBattleofKursk,wherethereservationofthisSAUdemonstrateditslowvulnerabilitytothefireoftheSovietmainanti-tankandtankartillery.Inthefuture,thesemachinesparticipatedinthebattlesontheEasternFrontandinItaly,endingtheircombatpathinthesuburbsofBerlin.IntheRedArmy«Ferdinand» often called any German self-propelled artillery mounts.
History of creation «Ferdinand»closelyintertwinedwiththehistoryofthecreationofthefamoustank"TigerI".Thistankwasdevelopedbytwocompetingdesignbureaus—«Porsche»and«Henschel».Inthewinterof1942,theproductionofprototypesoftanksbegan,calledVK4501(P)("Porsche")andVK4501(H)("Henschel").OnApril20,1942(ontheFuhrer'sbirthday),prototypesweredemonstratedtoHitlerbyconductingdemonstrationshooting.Bothsamplesshowedsimilarresults,andthedecisiontoselectasampleformassproductionwasnotmade.Hitlerinsistedontheparallelproductionofbothtypes,themilitaryleadershipwasinclinedtothemachineHenschel.InApril—Junetestswerecontinued,inparallel,thecompany«Nibelungenverke»beganassemblingthefirstserial«Tigers» Porsche. On June 23, 1942, at a meeting with Hitler, it was decided to have in serial production only one type of heavy tank, which became the machine of the company "Henschel". The reason for this is considered to be problems with the electromechanical transmission of a Porsche tank, a small cruising range of the tank, and the need to develop mass production of engines for the tank. The conflict between Ferdinand Porsche and the German Armed Forces Department also played a role.
Despite the decision, Porsche did not stop working on improving his tank.On June 21, 1942, on the basis of Hitler’s personal order, the Reich ministry of armaments and ammunition ordered the installation of a powerful 88-mm cannon with a 71 caliber barrel on the tank. However, the installation of this gun in the existing tower was impossible, as the management of the plant “Nibelungenwerk” » reported on September 10, 1942. At the same time, on the initiative of Hitler, the question was being worked out of installing a captured French 210-mm mortar in a fixed wheelhouse on a tank chassis.
Back in March 1942, Hitler ordered the creation of a heavy anti-tank SAU armed with a powerful 88 mm PaK 43 cannon. Porsche in such an installation, while strengthening the frontal booking up to 200 mm. Officially, Porsche was notified of the conversion of a tank into a self-propelled gun on September 29, but ignored this instruction, hoping for the adoption of his tank with a new turret to accommodate a long 88-mm cannon. However, on October 14, 1942, Hitler demanded to immediately begin work on the alteration of the chassis of Porsche tanks into anti-tank self-propelled guns. To speed up the work on the design of assault guns, the company “Laquette Alkett” was involved, which had extensive experience in this field.
When designing «Ferdinand»PorscheusedtheexperienceofcreatingtwoexperimentalACS12.8cmK40(Sf)aufVK3001(H).Theseheavymachines,armedwith128-mmanti-aircraftguns,passedmilitarytestsin1942.Project«conversion»tanksinSAUwasmadeKB«Porsche»andthecompany«Alquette»inagreathurry,whichisnotthebesteffectonthedesignofthemachine—inparticular,forreasonsofatechnologicalnature(theneedtomakeacutinthe200mmarmor,besidesweakeningthefrontplate)theconstructedself-propelledgunsdidnothavetheprojectedcoursegunandtheobliquearrangementoftheadditionalbookingsheets.Thehulloftheoriginaltankwassubjectedtominimalchanges,mainlyinthestern;Atthesametime,theoveralllayoutofthemachinehasundergonesignificantalterations.Sincethenewgunhadaconsiderablelengthofthebarrel,itwasdecidedtomountthearmoredwheelhousewiththeguninthesternofthehullpreviouslyoccupiedbyenginesandgenerators,whichinturnweremovedtothemiddleofthehull.Thedriverandradiooperator,whoremainedintheirseatsinfrontofthehull,turnedoutinthisway«cutoff» from the rest of the crew.Instead of the Porsche engines that were not brought up and not in serial production, Maybach engines were installed, which led to the need for a complete rework of the cooling system. Also, gas tanks of increased capacity have been re-designed. On December 28, 1942, the project for the ACS was reviewed and generally approved (during the discussion of the project, requirements were made for reducing the weight of the machine, which were satisfied by a number of measures, in particular, by decreasing the ammunition load).
In January 1943, the company "Nibelungenwerke" began alteration of tank chassis in SAU. By the spring of 1943, the first cars began to flow to the front. As a token of respect for the creator, Hitler ordered in February 1943 to assign his name to the new self-propelled guns.
Work on reworking the first two Tiger (P) chassis into self-propelled artillery units began in January 1943 at the company “Laquette” ».Modernizationofbuildingswiththestrengtheningoftheirbookingwasheldatthefactory«Oberdonau»inLinz.InJanuary,thecompanyshipped15packages,inFebruary—26March37andApril—12.Thecutoffsoftheself-propelledgunswereorderedtothefirm"Krupp".ItwasoriginallyplannedthatthefinalassemblyofalltheACSwillbecarriedoutbythecompany“Alkett”,butinFebruary1943ReichMinisterofArmsandAmmunitionA.SpeerproposedtoentrustthisworktothecompanyNibelungenwerk,whichgreatlyfacilitatedthetransportationofthemachines(theNibelungenwerkcompanyinSt.Valentinewasonly20kmfromtheOberdonplantinLinz).Thisproposalwasaccepted,andallACS,exceptforthefirsttwo,weremadebythecompany"Nibelungenwerke".ThefirstproductioncarwasputtothetestattheKummersdorftestsiteinApril1943,30carswerecommissionedinthesamemonth,therestwereapprovedinMay.Intotal,90“Ferdinands”weremanufactured,whichafterthefinaloutfitweresuppliedwithammunition,radiostations,sparepartsandtools,weretransferredtothetroops— 29 cars in April, 56 in May and 5 in June 1943.
The ACS had a rather unusual layout with the deployment of the fighting compartment in the stern in a spacious cabin. In the fighting compartment housed a gun, ammunition and most of the crew; under the fighting compartment housed traction motors. In the central part of the machine is located the power plant compartment, in which are installed engines, generators, ventilation-radiator unit, fuel tanks.At the front of the hull, there were places for the driver and radio operator, while direct communication between the fighting compartment and the control compartment was impossible, due to the separation of the compartments with heat-resistant metal partitions and the location of the equipment in the power unit compartment.
Armor and Chopping
The armored body of the ACS, inherited by it «inherited»fromaheavytank,wasassembledfromsheetsofrolledsurfacehardenedarmorwithathicknessof100mm(forehead),80mm(upperpartoftheboardandfeed)and60mm(lowerpartoftheboard).Inthefrontalpartofthereservationwasreinforcedbyanadditional100-mmsheet,fastenedwithboltswithabullet-proofhead,thus,thereservationinthefrontalpartofthebodyreached200mm.Thearmordidnothaverationalslopes.Frontalprojectionarmorplatesweremadeofso-called"marinesteel"» (M. Svirin) taken from the reserves of Kriegsmarine. The side plates were connected with frontal and stern "thorn", outside and inside all the joints were welded with austenitic electrodes. The bottom of the car had a thickness of 20 mm, its front part (1350 mm long) was additionally strengthened by riveted 30 mm armor plate.In the front part of the hull there were two hatchways above the driver's and radio operator's places, with holes for inspection instruments. Blinds were placed on the roof of the central part of the hull, through which air was taken in and exhausted to cool the engines (through the central and side louvers, respectively). The armor room was assembled from 200-mm (forehead) and 80-mm (sides and stern) armor plates, which are located at an angle to increase equipment resistance. For reservation forehead felling was used forged armor from the stocks of the German fleet. The armor plates were connected into a spike, in important places (the connection of the frontal plate with the side), reinforced with goujons, and scalded to ensure tightness. The cabin was attached to the hull with kerchiefs, strips and bolts with a bullet-proof head. In the sides and aft of the cabin there were hatches with plugs for firing from personal weapons (one in the sides and three in the aft). Also, in the aft of the cabin there was a large round armored door, used to replace the gun, as well as for emergency escape of the car by the crew, in addition, in the center of the armored door itself there was a hatch intended for loading ammunition.Two more hatchways intended for landing / disembarking the crew were on the roof of the cabin. Also on the roof of the cabin there was a hatch for the installation of a periscopic sight, two hatch for the installation of surveillance devices, as well as a fan.
The main armament of the self-propelled guns was the 88-mm rifled gun StuK 43 (in a number of sources PaK 43) with a barrel length of 71 caliber. This gun was specially adapted for installation on "Ferdinand" raquo; a variant of the anti-tank gun PaK 43. The gun weighing 2200 kg was equipped with a powerful two-chamber muzzle brake and was installed in the frontal part of the wheelhouse in a special ball mask. Tests by shelling showed that the mask booking scheme was not very successful — small fragments penetrated into the cracks. To correct this deficiency, additional shields were installed. In the stowed position, the gun barrel rested on a special mount. The gun had two anti-recoil devices located on the sides of the gun in the upper part of the barrel, as well as a vertical semi-automatic wedge gate. Guidance mechanisms were located on the left, at the gunner’s seat. Instrument targeting was carried out using a monocular periscope sight SFlZF1a / Rblf36, having an increase of 5x and a field of view of 8 °.
Cannon «Ferdinand»hadaverypowerfulballisticsandatthetimeofitsappearancewasthestrongestamongthetankandself-propelledguns.Untiltheveryendofthewar,iteasilyhitalltypesoftanksandself-propelledgunsoftheenemy.OnlyfrontalbookingofheavytanksIS-2andM26«Pershing» at certain distances and course angles, protected them from the gun "Ferdinand".
The ammunition inventory consisted of 50 (y &laElephanta—of55)shotsincludingPzgr.39-1armor-piercingshells,Pzgr.40/43scrapersandSprgr43high-explosiveshells.Theshotswerecompletedinunitarycartridges(accordingtosomesources,high-explosivefragmentationshotswereseparatelyloaded).CumulativeprojectilesexistedfortheSAUgun,butnoinformationwasavailableontheiruseofthe"Ferdinand"»notfound.Since1944insteadofthePzgr.40/43projectiles,whichwerescarceandreleasedinasmallnumberofshells,Pzgr.40(W)shellswereused; solid armor-piercing thick-headed.
Initially, the machine gun was not part of the armament, but during the modernization of January — March 1944 in the front armor of the case on the right was installed ball mounting machine gun MG-34.Ammunition machine gun was 600 rounds.
Engine and Transmission
Powerplant «Ferdinand»hadaveryoriginaldesign—thetorquefromtheenginestothedrivingwheelswastransmittedelectrically.Duetothis,therewerenosuchknotsinthecarasagearboxandmainfrictionclutch.Theself-propelledgunhadtwoV-shaped12-cylindercarburetedwater-coolingengines&laMaybach»HL120TRMinstalledinparallel,withacapacityof265liters.from.(at2600rpm).Exhaustgaseswereremovedintheareaofthefifthtrackroller.TheenginesactuatedtwoSiemens-SchuckertTypaGVelectricgeneratorswithavoltageof365V.TheSiemens-SchuckertD149aACtractionelectricmotorswithapowerof230kWwerelocatedintherearofthehullandactuatedeachwheelthroughareductiongearbox.Suchatransmissionprovidedanextremelyeasymachinecontrol,butdifferedinconsiderableweight.Also,theelectricalequipmentoftheautomaticcontrolsystemincludedanauxiliaryelectricgenerator,twostartermotorsandfourbatteries.Infrontofthe'Ferdinand» there were two fuel tanks with a capacity of 540 liters each.
The chassis of the ACS had a lot in common with that of the experimental tank “Leopard”, designed by Porsche in 1940. Suspension is blocked, combined (torsion combined with a rubber pad), torsions are placed longitudinally outside the body on carts. Three trolleys with two track rollers each were located on each side. Such a suspension, with a certain complexity of design, was distinguished by reliability and good maintainability — so, replacing the roller took no more than 3 & 4 hours. The design of the rollers was well thought out and provided a high service life with significant savings in scarce rubber. The drive wheel had removable gear rims with 19 teeth each. The guide wheel also had toothed rims, which excluded idle rewind of the tracks. The track chain consisted of 108 - 110 cast steel tracks 640 mm wide. In general, the design of the chassis was reliable and easy to operate.
At the end of 1943 —thebeginningof1944allremainingbythattimeintheranksofthe"Ferdinand"(47pcs.)Havebeenrepairedandupgradedattheplant"Nibelungenwerke".Theworkcarriedoutincludedinstallationofthemachinegunintheballmountinthefrontalsheetoftheautomaticcontrolsystem,replacementofgunbarrels,reversaloftheshieldonthebarrelofthegun«backwards» for better mounting on the trunk, mounting on the roof of the wheelhouse of the observation tower with seven fixed periscopes, changing poles on the lighting generator and improving the sealing of the exhaust pipes, strengthening the bottom in front of the case with a 30-mm armor plate to protect against mines, mounting wider tracks, increasing ammunition for 5 shots, mounted on the body of the tool holders and tracked tracks. The hull and cabin of the ACS were covered with zimether.
Often, the modernized SAU is called "Elephant". In fact, the order to rename the ACS was issued on February 27, 1944, after the end of the modernization. However, the new name stuck badly, and until the end of the war, self-propelled guns were often called “Ferdinand” in the military and in official documents than “Elephant” in the official list. At the same time, the name “Elephant” is often used in English-language literature, due to the fact that machines with this name took part in battles with Anglo-American troops in Italy.
Initially, &Ferdinand's»theywerepartoftwoheavyanti-tankbattalions(divisions)—schwerePanzerjagerAbteilung(653rdand654th).Ineachbattalion,initiallytherewerethreecompaniesofthreeplatoonseach,eachplatoonhadfourcars,plustwocarswithacompanycommander;therewasalsoastaffcompanyofthreecars.Thus,allineachbattaliontherewere45self-propelledguns.Bothbattalionswerepartofthe656thTankRegimentformedonJune8,1943.Inadditionto"Ferdinand",theregimentincludedthe216thbattalionofassaultguns"Brumber",aswellasthe213rdand214thcompaniesofradio-controlledexplosivetransporters"Borgward".AttheendofAugust1943,theremainingFerdinand»the653thbattalionwasconsolidated,andthe654thbattaliondepartedforOrleanstoretrainforthetanks"Panther".BytheendofAugust1944,the653thbattalion,whichsufferedgreatlosses,wasredeployedtoAustria,andtheremaining"elephanta"andraquo;broughttoone2ndcompany,onDecember15,1944,renamedto614thseparatecompanyofheavytankdestroyers— 614. schwere Heeres Panzerjager Kompanie.
In general, the ACS &Ferdinand»isveryambiguousintermsofevaluationoftheobject,whichislargelyaconsequenceofitsdesign,whichdeterminedthesubsequentfateofthemachine.Theself-propelledgunwasanimprovisationcreatedingreathaste,infactanexperimentalmachineonthechassisofanunaccustomedheavytank.Therefore,inordertoevaluatetheACS,itisnecessarytolearnmoreaboutthedesignoftheTiger(P)tank,fromwhich«Ferdinand» inherited many of its advantages and disadvantages.
On this tank was used a large number of new technical solutions not previously tested in the German and world tank building. The most significant of these are electric transmission and suspension using longitudinal torsions. Both of these solutions showed good efficiency, but proved to be excessively complex and expensive in production and not sufficiently developed for long-term operation. Although there were also subjective factors in the choice of the prototype of the company "Henschel", there were also objective reasons for the non-acceptance of F. Porsche designs. Before the war, this designer was actively involved in the development of complex designs of racing cars, which were single prototype samples not intended for high-volume production.He managed to achieve both reliability and efficiency of his designs, but due to the use of very highly skilled labor, high-quality materials and individual work with every model released. The designer tried to transfer the same approach to tank building, where completely different rules prevailed.
Although the handling and survivability of the entire engine-transmission unit received a very good evaluation from the German military who exploited it, the price was high technological costs for its production and an increase in the mass-dimension characteristics of the entire Tiger (P) tank as a whole. In particular, some sources mention the great need of the Third Reich in copper, and its abundant use in the electrical engineering of Tiger (P) was regarded as a superfluity. In addition, a tank with such a scheme had too much fuel consumption. Therefore, a number of promising projects of tanks F. Porsche was rejected precisely because of the use of electric transmission in them.
The suspension with longitudinal torsion bars was much easier in maintenance and repair compared to the "chess" torsion bar suspension of the tank «TigerI».On the other hand, it was very difficult to manufacture and less reliable in operation. All variants of its subsequent development were steadily rejected by the leadership of the German tank construction in favor of a more traditional and technological "chess" rakeback. schemes, albeit much less convenient to repair and maintain.
Therefore, from an industrial point of view, the German army leadership and the Ministry of Armaments and Ammunition in fact passed a verdict on the uselessness of the Tiger (P) Wehrmacht. However, a significant stock of almost finished chassis of this machine made it possible to experiment on the creation of the world's first heavily armored tank destroyer. The number of self-propelled guns was strictly limited by the number of available chassis, which predetermined the low-volume “Ferdinand” series, regardless of the advantages and disadvantages of its design.
Combat use of «Ferdinands»leftadualimpression.Themostpowerful88-mmcannonwasideallysuitedforthedestructionofenemyarmoredvehiclesatanydistanceofthebattle,andthecrewsoftheGermanself-propelledgunsactuallycollectedverylargeaccountsofdestroyedanddamagedSoviettanks.Powerfulbookingmadeby«Ferdinand» practically invulnerable to projectiles of almost all Soviet guns when firing in the forehead, side and stern did not penetrate 45 mm armor-piercing projectiles, and 76 mm projectiles (and only modifications B, BSP) pierced it only from extremely small distances (less than 200 m), strictly normal. Therefore, the instructions for the Soviet tankers and gunners prescribed to beat on the chassis "Ferdinand", into the barrel of the gun, at the joints of armor plates and viewing instruments. More effective sub-caliber shells were in very small quantities.
Somewhat better was the effectiveness of the 57-mm anti-tank guns of the ZIS-2 on the side armor (normally, the side armor of the SAU was penetrated by projectiles of these guns from about 1000 m). It is enough to effectively hit «Ferdinands»couldcorpsandarmyartillerylevel—heavy,low-mobile,expensiveandlow-speed122-mmA-19cannonsand152-mmhowitzersML-20cannons,aswellasexpensiveandvulnerableduetothelargesizeofthe85-mmanti-aircraftguns.In1943,theonlySovietarmoredvehiclecapableofeffectivelyfighting“Ferdinand”wastheACSSU-152,whichwasmuchinferiortotheGermanself-propelledgunforbooking,accuracyandeffectiverangeofarmor-piercingprojectile(althoughgoodresultswereachievedwhenshootingat"Ferdinand"high-explosivefragmentation-armordidnotpenetrate,butdamagedthechassis,gun,internalcomponentsandunits,wasinjuredcrew).Alsoquiteeffectiveagainstsidearmor«Ferdinand» There was a 122-mm cumulative projectile BP-460A SAU SU-122, but the range and accuracy of this projectile was very low.
Anti-tank and tank artillery of Great Britain and the United States was also ineffective against frontal armor "Ferdinand", only appeared in the middle of 1944, sneak projectiles with a detachable tray to a 17-pound (76.2-mm) anti-tank gun (which was also installed on tanks Sherman Firefly, ACU Achilles and Archer) could solve this problem. In the board, the German SAU was confidently amazed by the armor-piercing shells of the British and American 57-mm and 75-mm cannons from a distance of about 500 m, 76-mm and 90-mm cannons —fromadistanceofabout2000m.Defensivebattlesof"Ferdinands"inUkraineandinItalyin1943-1944theywereconfirmedbytheirveryhighefficiencywhenusedfortheirintendedpurpose— as a tank destroyer.
On the other hand, the high security level of the «Ferdinand»toacertainextentplayedanegativeroleinhisfate.Insteadofalong-rangetankdestroyerbecauseofthemassiveandaccuratefireoftheSovietartillery,theGermancommandatKurskused"laFerdinand"»asthetipofaramSovietdefenseindepth,whichwasaclearmistake.Forthisrole,theGermanSPGwasbadfor—thelackofamachinegun,lowpowerforalargemassofthemachineandhighgroundpressure.Itisknownthatasignificantnumberof"LaFerdinand"»ItwasimmobilizedbyexplosionsintheSovietminefieldsandartilleryfireontheundercarriage,mostofthesevehiclesweredestroyedbytheirowncrewsbecauseoftheimpossibilityofquickevacuationduetoexcessivemassofACS.Sovietinfantryandanti-tankartillery,knowingtheimpenetrabilityof«Ferdinand» and his weakness in the melee, let the German self-propelled guns closer, trying to deprive them of the support of the German infantry and tanks, and then try to knock them down by firing, on the undercarriage, guns, as recommended by the anti-heavy tanks and self-propelled guns.
The immobilized ACS became easy prey for infantry armed with anti-tank combat weapons, for example, incendiary bottles. Such tactics were fraught with great losses, but sometimes this led to success, especially if the German self-propelled gun lost the opportunity to turn. In particular, one caught in a sand pit «Ferdinand»IcouldnotgetmyselfoutofthereandwascapturedbytheSovietinfantry,andhiscrewwascaptured.Theweaknessof"Ferdinand» in the melee was marked by the German side and served as one of the reasons for the modernization in "Elephant".
A large mass of 'La Ferdinand »madeitdifficulttopassthroughmanybridges,althoughitwasnotprohibitivelylarge,especiallywhencomparedtoaheavy"TigerII"tankandraquo;andself-propelledgun"гdigr».Largedimensionsandlowmobility&Ferdinand» not in the best way affected the survivability of the machine in the conditions of the air domination of Allied aviation.
In general, despite some shortcomings, «Ferdinands»provedtobeverygood,andwithproperusetheseSAUswereanextremelydangerousopponentofanytankorACSofthosetimes.Theheirsof"LaFerdinand"havebecomearmedwithanequallypowerfulweapon,butlighterandweakerthanarmored"Lagdpanther"» and "Jagdigr", the most powerful and heavy tank destroyer of the Second World War.
Direct analogs of 'Ferdinand' »inothercountrieswasnot.Accordingtotheconceptandweapons,theSovietfightersoftheSU-85andSU-100tanksareclosesttoit,buttheyaretwiceaslightandmuchweakerarmored.Anotheranalogueof— Soviet heavy propulsion system ISU-122, with powerful weapons, was much inferior to the German self-propelled gun for frontal booking. British and American anti-tank SAU had an open wheelhouse or tower, and were also very easily armored.
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