Hampden Mk1 paper bomber model
The Hampden Mk1 paper bomber modelis a British twin-engine bomber in service with the Royal Air Force during World War II. Together with Wellington and Wheatley, Hempden carried the burden of the early stage of the war over Europe, participated in the first raid on Berlin and the first “raid of thousands of bombers” » - raid on Cologne.
Materials and tools:
- scissors, paper knife, drawing ruler
- glue brushes and paint;
- watercolors (or pencils), toothpicks;
- clear acrylic glue ("Moment", etc.);
- to print the model matte photo paper with a density of 170-180 g / m2; for small parts - 70-80 g / m2.
- Before you assemble the part, read the drawings and instructions. Determine the place of each part and imagine its assembly;
- Make holes in details before cutting out the part;
- Cut only the part (s) you need right now.Unpacked items in a box, and unused sheets in a closed folder (as an option). Throwing out trash after work, carefully inspect the scrap paper;
- To better fold the part, it is necessary to hold the ruler along the fold line, pressing lightly with the blunt side of the knife or a toothpick so as not to damage the paper surface. Better to do it from the wrong side of the part;
- Keep your fingers clean and be sure to use wipes to wipe your hands, because hands may get dirty in the process;
- wind up cylindrical parts before gluing onto a round object of a suitable diameter, this will give them shape;
- Before gluing it is necessary to paint the ends of the part. White crop lines spoil the overall look of the model. To paint the ends, use watercolors or gouache paints. After selecting the desired color, apply them in a thin layer, then allow the paint to dry. About markers better to forget;
- Take your time with gluing. First, cut out the part, paint it from the end, wait for the paint to dry, assemble the part. Attach it to the place where it should be to make sure everything is done correctly. And only then stick. Do not forget to let the glue dry.
A bit of history
British twin-engine bomber Hampden Mk1
The British twin-engine bomber Hampden Mk1 - British twin-engine bomber, which was in service with the Royal Air Force during World War II. Together with Wellington and Wheatley, Hempden carried the burden of the early stage of the war over Europe, participated in the first raid on Berlin and the first “raid of thousands of bombers” » - raid on Cologne.
The most modern of the British twin-engined bombers, Hempden, nicknamed "Flying suitcase" (Eng. Flying Suitcase), was unsuitable for modern war in the air, and, after operation mainly at night, was removed from service with the Bomber Command of the Royal Air Force in late 1942.
Start developing «Hempden»ShelaidoutthespecificationB.9/32issuedinOctober1932bytheMinistryofAviationofGreatBritainforthecreationofatwo-engineddaybomber.Bristol,Gloucester,HendleyPageandVikkerspresentedtheirproposals.Thewinnerswerethelasttwo,andonMay29,1933theyreceivedanorderfortheconstructionofprototypes.TheVickersbomber,laterbecoming«Wellington» was built almost in parallel with the Hendley-Page HP.52 - for the first time the Hendley-Page prototype with the serial number K4240 was flown into the air by chief executive of the company J. Kourds on June 21, 1936, just 6 days after the first flight of the Vickers prototype.
The aircraft, created under the leadership of the chief designer Gustav Lachmann, had a very narrow fuselage, in front of which the crew was located, and on the long beam was attached the two-tail tail unit. Initially, it was planned to equip the aircraft with Rolls-Royce Goshok engines, which made it possible to meet the rigid weight limit imposed by the Geneva Disarmament Convention, but after failing to adopt this convention and lift the weight limit of an empty aircraft, the designers equipped the Bristol with more powerful and heavy engines Pegasus VIII.
After the first series of tests, in July 1936, the prototype of the “Hempden” » It was shown at the aviation exhibition in Hendon, and on July 6, among other new cars, it was introduced to King Edward VIII. During further tests, the prototype had a number of flight accidents - on November 5, due to the failure of the landing gear alarm whenWhen landing, the plane hit the ground, and on January 13, 1937, a loose screw cut through the fuselage behind the pilot's seat.
The composition of the small arms of the aircraft changed several times, the mechanized turrets did not fit into the narrow fuselage, had to be limited to two hand turrets with twin machine guns; 303 Vikkers K, to protect the rear hemisphere and another two such machine guns in the nose - coursework and navigator .
The second prototype, which had a smoother fuselage shape, served as a model for serial aircraft, while small arms were limited to single machine guns. Its name is &Hempden» the aircraft received in honor of John Hempden, defender of civil liberties of the XVII century, while the tradition was observed to call the Royal Air Force bombers the names of cities.
The single-spar free-carrying wing has a trapezoid shape in terms of and is equipped with powerful mechanization — automatic slats and single-slit flaps — providing excellent take-off and landing characteristics. Engines in the span of the wing are located as close to the fuselage as possible to reduce the unfolding moment. Screws - De Havilland-Hamilton Standard, variable pitch. The chassis is three-legged with a tail wheel, for the first time on Hendley Page planes made retractable. 6 fuel tanks with a total capacity of 2970 liters are located in the wing. Unusual for its time was the technological division of the airframe, assembled from fully assembled individual interchangeable modular sections, which made it possible to assemble the aircraft from separate subassemblies produced by different manufacturers.
The crew of 4 people: a pilot, a navigator-scorer and 2 arrows, turned out to be tightly «packed» in a narrow narrow fuselage, and the navigator-bombardier, sitting next to the pilot, could not help or replace him in case of injury or death.
On September 3, 1939, the Royal Air Force had 169 "Hampdens" in service. From the first day of the war, they were used to search for the Kriegsmarine ships, in conjunction with «Wheatley» patrolled the bases of German seaplanes to prevent their setting up minefields in the harbors and estuaries of the rivers of England, and vice versa, they themselves placed magnetic mines weighing 907 kg (2000 lb) in the coastal waters of Germany.
The first collision with the enemy fighters occurred on September 29: two groups of the 144th squadron, totaling 11 vehicles during the attack of German destroyers in Helgoland Bay, were intercepted by Messerschmitts Bf.109E - all 5 of the first group were lost, the second group managed to fight back and lossless return to base. In the subsequent sorties, the damage was as great, the deficit of defensive weapons affected, which by December 1939 forced the use of "Hemden" »exclusivelyatnight.Thenumberoflosseshasbeendramaticallyreduced,forexample,duringtheoperationof«Nickel»-droppingleafletsontheterritoryofGermany-«Hampdeny» made 123 departures, losing just one plane.
After the defeat of France and the start of the preparation of the Wehrmacht operation «Sealion»ThemainpurposeoftheBritishbomberswereshipcongestionintheportsofBelgiumandFrance.Atthesametime,theattacksontheterritoryofGermanycontinuedandintensified.OnthenightofAugust26,1940,14"ArmstrongWhitworthWhitley",12"Hempden"»and9«Wellington»inflictedthefirstbombingofBerlinduringWorldWarII.AtdawnonJuly2,«Hampden»aflyingofficer,GuyGibson(wholaterbecamethecommanderofthefamous617Squadron"Dumbasters")forthefirsttimedroppeda907-kgbombonthebattlecruiser"Scharnhorst",stationedattheportofKiel,butthebombdidnothitthetarget.May30-31,1942“Hampdens»participatedinthefirst“raidthousandsofbombers» to Cologne on May 30-31, 1942. In total, 714 Hempdenes were lost, crews lost 1077 people dead and 739 missing.
Crews of the Hemdens » received two Crosses of Victoria - the highest award of Great Britain. The first one received flight-lieutenant Roderick Leroy from the 49th squadron for the destruction of the aqueduct on the Dortmund-Ems channel on the night of 12/13 August, the second, sergeant John Khan from the 83rd squadron, for extinguishing the fire on board, which allowed the damaged aircraft to return to base.
At the initiative of the commander of the 5th group of Air-Commodore Arthur Harris (who later became the head of the Bomber Command) rear single machine guns on the "la Hampden" » were replaced by paired installations, over time it spread to all “Hempdenes”.
After the withdrawal in 1942 of the “Hempden” » from the weapons of the Bomber Command, they were used by the Coast Command as a long-range torpedo bomber and reconnaissance aircraft under the designation TB Mk.I and carried one torpedo in the bomb bay with the shutters removed.
In the fall of 1942 «Hempdena»fromthe144thand455thsquadronsweresenttotheUSSRontheairfieldVaenganearMurmansktoensurethepostingofthecaravanPQ-18.LaterthesquadronpersonnelreturnedtotheUK,andtheremaining23“Hempden'» October 12 entered service of the 24th Mine-Torpedo Aviation Regiment. The shortage of spare parts and combat losses reduced the number of combat-ready machines, and by June 1943 they remained in service with only the 3rd Squadron of the 24th MTAP, which on July 4, 1943 made its last combat sortie on the Soviet-German front.
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