Hereditary signs of dogs
Inherited signs of dogs. Intelligence, "intelligence" - polygenic poorly inherited traits of dogs, which it is advisable to learn through penetrance and expressiveness. The genes of these characters are associated (linked) with the genes of intuition and sharpness of smell. In the practice of training, this position should be taken into account, since intelligence is often characteristic of dogs with a sharp instinct, easily trained and able to take a trail. However, limited selection (small-scale) leaves doubts about the exact interbreed comparisons on the above-mentioned characters. More information in this regard is available on such grounds as social and stressful behavior. Within the species, all dogs constitute a genetic hierarchy. When mixing breeds (juvenile period of specialization), the leadership of puppies of one breed over another is noticeable. The social hierarchy of some breeds has a greater expressiveness of genes than in others, for example, fox terriers dominate beagles. Characteristically, the genes of the above-mentioned signs of behavior are manifested up to 4 months of age.The inability of puppies to "behave properly" does not allow to get rid of it after 6 months of age. Thus, the effects of childhood are genetically inscrutable: raising puppies in isolation causes special harm to dogs genetically cowardly and passive. Considering that the genes of the named signs of behavior, and possibly others, are realized in ontogeny in stages, geneticists recommend to detect their effective actions as early as possible. Genetic programming is always rational. It is known that pedigree genes, for example, social behavior parameters make up to 40% of the genome, and family genes - more than 60%. When drawing up plans for selection for given characteristics of behavior, it is recommended to take into account the influence of accompanying factors: diseases, age, sexual dimorphism, live weight, feeding and maintenance, litter size, number of whelping, randomization of samples within one population or breed. Among the well-inherited traits, the following are distinguished: friendliness, biting and passive defense - h2 16%; weakly inherited: no fear for sound stimuli, active defense and courage - h2 - 4%; acuity of L2 - 39%, h2 trail taking - 46%; hunting qualities L2 - 41% - to highly inherited.
The feasibility of selecting behavioral traits is recommended to determine ’on the basis of multiple correlation and regression analyzes. Thus, it was definitely established that dogs with the correct structure of the hip joint are characterized by a high temperament (g = 0.33 ± 0.04). Dogs that react sharply to a shot - they actively defend themselves (g = 0.64 ± 0.12) are ill with hemophilia mainly in the males, etc.
It has already been mentioned above that the genes of all traits are inherited, that is, they are transmitted in a number of generations. But the difference in one trait in different animals may be due to both genetic differences and environmental conditions: feeding, breeding, housing, etc. When observing hereditary behavioral traits in puppies, heaping each other or other animals living on the farm, it becomes obvious that this is a typical sign of behavior developed from ancestors who hunted. When domestication, it was unclaimed. When patrolling the flocks by shepherd shepherds to a certain extent individually developed and not all dogs have these instincts clearly inherited.Evaluation of instincts, as a rule, lead to the pedigree, noting their occurrence in rows and, accordingly, calculating, for example, the expressiveness of genes: a close look, styling, voice, etc. Information on genetics indicates that herding instinct is not fully dominant, voice cast dominant and the ability to be a guide for the blind (Labrad-rami) - polygenic.
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