How are birth

Childbirth is a rather long process, the duration of which varies from 9-11 hours in nulliparous to 6-8 in multiparous. Births lasting longer than 14 hours are called prolonged, less than 6 hours for primiparous and less than 4 for multiparous - fast, and less than 4 for nulliparians and less than 2 for multiparous - swift. Such an abnormal duration of labor is considered pathology.
Childbirth takes place in three stages: contractions, attempts and the expulsion of the placenta.

Contractions


At the stage of contractions, the cervix is ​​opened. Her contractions cause pain. It is rather difficult to characterize them, because they are not the same for different women. Some women describe these sensations as repeatedly intensified pains during menstruation, others - as abdominal distension, in a word, how many women in labor, so many sensations.
Women who give birth for the first time may not immediately understand that the contractions began. Their main signs are wave-like character (pain appears, increases, fades away and disappears) and periodicity. The intensity of the pain increases from contraction to contraction, and the intervals between them decrease.
Another characteristic sign of contractions is that pain "dictates" a certain posture. Some women in labor lie down during contractions, others fall to their knees, and some fall on all fours, etc. Once obstetricians prohibited women from taking such poses, but now it is not considered harmful. During fights, you can take any position, only you can not sit. It is unacceptable to shout during contractions, because the cry causes a spasm of all muscles, which prevents the disclosure of the cervix.
Contractions occur "in automatic mode", no conscious efforts can affect them, so do not need to strain. In order to avoid oxygen starvation of the fetus, a woman should have to breathe intensively during contractions. Such breathing resembles a vocal one: fast, intense inhalation, fixation of the diaphragm, and slow exhalation.
At the end of the period of contractions the fetal bladder is opened, the amniotic fluid is poured. If this does not happen for too long, the midwife opens the fetal bladder.

Idle stage


The beginning of the necessary stage is very easy to distinguish: the head of the fetus descends into the pelvic region, and the woman experiences a sensation resembling the urge to empty the intestines.There can be no such desires for a woman in labor, because the intestines are cleaned with an enema before childbirth, so the value of such a sensation should not cause doubts.
If during labor the woman was in the prenatal ward, now she is transferred to the delivery room and placed on the delivery table.
Attempts are an intense contraction of the uterus, abdominal muscles and diaphragm. The uterus contracts reflexly, and the contractions of other muscles can and should be controlled. A midwife monitors the condition of the uterus. When she shrinks, he orders the woman to give birth. It is very important at this time to direct the force to the lower part of the body, otherwise there will be no result other than the burst capillaries in the eyes (“red” eyes).
It is equally important to overcome the reflex desire to raise the pelvis, because this situation can lead to ruptures of the cervix and perineum. It is necessary to press the pelvis to the table.
The most painful moment is the eruption of the head. This is the largest part of the fetus, the torso and legs come out with less pain, and some mothers do not even feel it.
Immediately after giving birth, a mother is placed on the mother’s breast for a few seconds, bringing it to the nipple to suck up some colostrum.If the child does not succeed, the mother should squeeze out a few drops herself and give them to the baby.

Exile afterbirth


The child has already been born, the umbilical cord is cut, the baby is being examined, washed, but the birth has not yet been completed. There are light contractions and exertions, due to which the afterbirth is expelled from the uterus: the fetal membranes, the fetal bladder and the detached placenta.
If there are tears, the doctor stitches. This is done under local anesthesia.
Now the birth is complete. The baby is sent to the pediatric ward, and the woman lies on the family table for some time. To avoid postpartum bleeding, an ice pack is placed on her stomach. After two hours, the woman is sent to the postnatal ward, where the mother and the child will stay until the discharge from the maternity hospital.


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