How to make a bath with your own hands
Build a bath is not difficult. It is more difficult, perhaps, to choose the layout, the method of heating, the internal equipment and the material for the walls of the bath and combine all this. Consider a simple and affordable way to build a bath of cinder blocks with wooden floors.
Mandatory premises in the bath are the steam room and the dressing room, which is also the furnace. The project may contain more rooms, but should not increase the area of the bath. This house is intended only for a family and it is quite enough room with a simultaneous stay of 2-3 people, not more.
The size of the bath in terms of 3x6 m is the most optimal. The bath plan can contain 4 rooms:
- Furnace, it is the platform. In the furnace, the furnace is fired and a single supply of firewood is stored. There are hangers for outerwear in winter. The furnace should be equipped with an excellent exhaust hood to remove smoke that penetrates when stowing wood in the stove.
- The waiting room. Lounge after the steam room and dressing room.Spacious, very warm room, equipped with wooden furniture and a small bar with refreshing drinks. In the bath is strictly not recommended to drink alcohol.
- Washing, equipped with simple shelves for bath inventory. Sometimes a mini-pool or a wooden barrel-tub is installed in the washing room - at the choice of the owner.
- Steam room The main premises of the bath and the smallest. Steam can be dry heat - sauna, or wet. Combining the steam room with the washing is undesirable, because washing at high temperatures is very difficult. Shelves and finishing steam rooms are usually made to order, clapboard of lime, although its cost is quite high.
All rooms are separated by light partitions, can be of plywood or OSB with mandatory impregnation with antiseptics. The sections of partitions near the furnace should be sheathed with fire-resistant gypsum cardboard.
The center of such a bath will be a stove slightly displaced towards one of the walls. The stove should heat all the rooms and give maximum heat to the steam room. The stove can be purchased ready-made, especially for a bath, or you can cook it yourself.
The choice of material for the bath
The bath is a small rectangular structure with load-bearing walls and wooden flooring. The main options for the walls of two baths: wooden or lined with stone.
Wooden baths can be log or timber. The material for such baths is usually sold already in finished form, all designs are processed and marked. A column foundation is made on the site and the assembly is carried out, very simple and fast.
Wooden baths have low thermal conductivity, look very impressive on the site, but have the main drawback: poor resistance to sunlight. In the southern, sunny regions of our country, very soon the tree of the log house will crack, blacken, lead, forming gaps and no impregnations will help. Frequent wood processing will increase the cost of the bath.
Stone baths do not have this disadvantage. These are more durable structures, but also more expensive. Bath walls can be made of any material available in the area. It can be a brick (silicate or ceramic), gas silicate blocks, shell limestone, cinder blocks, foam blocks.
Worried that the masonry will mold or crumble from moisture is not worth it: rooms with a wet regime of the bath are thoroughly cleaned from the inside with heat and waterproofing material and provided with good ventilation.With proper operation of the bath can serve for several generations.
Consider the option of building a bath of cinder block, as the most simple material. The building is attic, with a gable roof.
The foundation under the walls we perform monolithic tape. Depth of installation depends on climatic and soil conditions, but not more than 80 cm. The width of the tape is 30 cm.
- Remove the layer of fertile soil. Humus will be used.
- We dig a trench under the outer walls.
- We lay concrete preparation with a thickness of 100 mm of lightweight concrete to protect the foundation from ground aggression.
- Before pouring, we prepare a skeleton of 4 reinforcing rods with a diameter of 8 mm connected to a spatial skeleton.
- Fill the trench with concrete in layers, with a thorough tamping of each layer. Aggregate for concrete can be crushed stone with a particle size of 20-40 mm, expanded clay or gravel.
- The basement of the bath can be made of brickwork 250 mm wide, i.e. in one brick. Take the brick for the basement only clay ceramic.
The floors in the bath to make concrete, in the following sequence:
- Remove excess soil remaining after fragments of trenches.
- Lay a layer of crushed stone 100 mm thick. Thoroughly ram heavy ramming.
- Arrange a waterproofing from the passage of bitumen mastic over the rubble.
- Lay a layer of concrete 150 mm thick. Before pouring, lay reinforcing mesh 5 Вр-1 with cells 50х50 mm.
- Top flooring: ceramic tile with non-slip coating or cement-sand screed of 1: 2 composition.
The floor in the washing compartment to perform with a slight bias towards the sewer.
At the place of installation of the furnace perform local reinforcement of additional reinforcement. Lightweight partitions do not require a foundation and are attached to the floor.
The walls of the bath are laid out of cinder block, in one block. The block size is standard, 200x200x400 mm. Laying should be carried out on a grade 100 solution, with the obligatory filling of all the gaps. Internal seams to rub. Every 4 rows of blocks to lay masonry metal tape or reinforcing wire. The lintels above the openings should be made of wooden timber or cast out of concrete on the spot. Lay the mauerlat on the top row of cinder blocks, pulled by pins to the masonry. Under the mauerlat lay a layer of roofing material.
The first row of cinder blocks should be laid on the waterproofing layer, usually it is also roofing felt.
Overlap and roof
To arrange the overlap from horizontal beams 150x50 mm installed on the power plate. Beam step 600 mm.
Beams from below to sheathe sheets of OSB or plywood, 10-12 mm thick. Attach only screws. Sheets form a solid ceiling above the bath. In the place of the passage of the pipe is installed sleeve of non-combustible material. Upon purchase of the furnace for a bath the sleeve goes in a set for overlapping and a roof.
Before laying insulation insulated vapor barrier film. It is possible to warm a ceiling of a bath mineral-wool nonflammable plates. A vapor barrier is laid on top of the insulation to protect against moisture and drafts.
If it is planned to operate the attic of the bath, the running boards are 25-40 mm thick packed on beams.
The roof is made of truss legs 100x50 mm, without the support of a support beam. The rafters are attached to the bottom of the ceiling beams, are connected from above by pulling 100x50. Under sheets of corrugated slate, 50x50 slats are laid with a pitch of 600 mm, under a professional flooring of board 100x25, with a pitch of 350 mm. If the option of a roof from a professional flooring is chosen, do not forget the vapor barrier film under the crate.
All bath is ready.
Water supply and sewage
Bath is located at some distance from the house. Since the volume of water consumed in the bath is quite significant, it is advisable to supply water. The pipe can be removed from the house or yard watering well. The depth of the propylene pipe is small, up to 60 cm. When laying the pipe, it should be laid in insulating covers made of energy-flex.
In the bath it is enough to remove the wall tap and the hose to fill the tanks with water.
Probably, it is not worthwhile to install showers or cabins, baths, toilet bowls and other equipment. Leave them for home.
Sewage is arranged in the process of building the foundation. A pipe with a knee is launched under the foundation or passes through its body in a metal sleeve that is installed during the concreting process. A conventional PVC pipe with a diameter of 100 mm is quite suitable for a sewage device. If a bath or a tub is planned in the bath, they should be removed from a pipe with a diameter of 50 mm. Pipes are laid before pouring the floor.
Water is drained either into the city sewage system or into a drainage septic tank. Small amounts of gray wastewater from the bath do not cause damage to the environment.
Finishing and insulation of stone walls of all rooms, except for the vestibule, can be made of PVC panels on a wooden frame. The sequence of work:
- Shoot the plastic wrap to the wall with a stapler as the main waterproofing.
- Install horizontal wooden slats in increments of 50 cm. Fasten the slats to the masonry with a screw anchor or hammer anchor into the drilled holes. Reiki before installing primed.
- Lay the insulation between the slats. For insulation, choose foam PSB 15, 25. Minvatu in the walls do not apply.
- Sheathe the surface of the penofol with heat-reflecting film inside.
- Install vertical PVC panels.
In the waiting room instead of PVC wall panels can be sheathed with moisture-resistant drywall. However, for the drywall will require additional finishing: putty joints and paint moisture-resistant composition.
The walls and ceiling of the steam room, instead of PVC, are sheathed with linden clapboard. Coniferous wood is not recommended. Under the influence of high temperatures, boards will release resin for a long time, and they are also subject to deformation due to the nature of the structure.
Exterior finishes are made of vinyl siding by analogy with the interior trim of PVC, only the slats are mounted vertically. If necessary, you can warm the bath outside.
Windows and doors are selected according to the capabilities of the owner.
Now the bath is ready finally.
Internally, the equipment and inventory of the baths are purchased in the store, or are made by hand, reducing the cost of construction, increasing your own self-esteem and skill level.
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