Simple automatic controller
Operation of the automatic controller circuitThe LM35 is used as a temperature sensor. It looks like a three-legged transistor. The output voltage of this sensor is linearly proportional to the temperature of degrees Celsius. That is - 10 mV / degree Celsius, for example, if the temperature is 45 degrees, then the voltage at the sensor output will be 450 mV or 0.45 V. The base of the transistor BC548 NPN structure is connected to the sensor output. From the characteristics of this transistor it is known that it starts to open then,when the voltage between the base and the emitter exceeds 0.4 V. Therefore, the fan starts to rotate when the temperature of the sensor exceeds 40 degrees. And when the sensor temperature exceeds 60 degrees and the output voltage of 0.6 V appears, the transistor will open fully and the fan will rotate to full capacity.
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