What is the anovulatory cycle?
Anovulatory cycle is called monthly menstrual bleeding, passing in one phase without ovulation. It is characterized by the lack of development of the yellow body, while maintaining the regularity of the onset of menstruation.
Medical gynecological practice distinguishes two subspecies of the cycle. One is called physiological, manifesting itself during age-related changes of the woman’s body, and the other is pathological, inherent in the state of infertility.
The pathological subtype of pathology in a woman at a productive age can be judged as a rare occurrence that occurs only in three percent of patients. Usually the diagnosis "anovulatory cycle" is put at puberty, accompanied by changes in the body, or in the menopausal period.
The physiological subspecies is diagnosed in women awaiting babies and nursing moms, as well as in the postpartum period. In some cases, there is a concomitant disease in the form of amenorrhea.
The causes that led to the pathological condition are dependent on the subspecies. For example:
- The basis of the physiological anovulatory cycle are the causes of a natural nature. This is a normal condition at a certain age that does not require specialized therapy or surgery. Moreover, it is inherent in almost all women twice a year. The presence of a teenage girl's menstrual bleeding without ovulation, in medical practice is considered a normal natural phenomenon.
- The pathological anovulatory cycle is characterized by the presence of a background in the form of organ malfunctions, such as the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries, thyroid, adrenal cortex, which are responsible for producing certain hormones important for stable and complete regulation and functionality of the female reproductive system.
Among the factors of pathology, in which there is no ovulation, can be identified:
- improper operation or the presence of pathological processes in organs that produce hormones;
- ovarian dysfunction;
- the presence of inflammatory processes, with localization in the uterus and appendages;
- genetically determined underdevelopment of the genitals;
- delayed puberty (late);
- lack of or excessive body weight;
- chronic intoxications, having a different character;
- excess production of prolactin.
Why is hormone production disrupted leading to a cycle in one phase? There are a number of reasons for this:
These are all the most diverse factors, based on various processes and deviations in the functions of the female body.
Symptoms of pathology
Anovulatory cycle inherent symptoms that can not be attributed to the undetected, and there are only two:
- Monthly disruptions.
Any woman planning a pregnancy, follows the slightest changes in the body, the onset of ovulation, the absence of which can be determined by the following symptoms:
- White discharge appears in the middle of the cycle;
- lumbar region painful, dull pain;
- discomfort appears in the ovaries;
- constantly want to eat;
- increased libido.
In the presence of two of the listed signs, urgent medical consultation is required.
Proceeding from theirthat the anovulatory cycle is a pathological condition with no obvious symptoms of progression, the main for the patients are considered complaints about the deterioration of health in general. Monthly bleeding is relatively regular and normal, sometimes there is a slight shift in the direction of the early or late period, but without much discomfort.
Deviations from the norm are in the duration and profusion of menstruation, or a reduction in the number of days and the volume of discharge. The reason for the delay is most likely that the hormonal background is malfunctioning, and if you postpone the visit to a specialist, you may not have a period of several months, which is fraught with progression and aggravation of the pathological process.
Moreover, women can take their absence for dysfunctions under the influence of negative factors such as hypothermia or overheating, past illnesses or stresses.
Methods of diagnosis
Diagnosis plays an important role in the anovulatory cycle, ensuring the correctness of treatment. Only with the help of a comprehensive survey is the correct diagnosis.One of the main indicators of pathology is basal temperature, which helps to control the cycle and make a graph. What you need to know:
- In the absence of pathologies and the passage of all phases of the cycle, the rectal temperature in the first phase is at the level of thirty-seven degrees, and after ovulation, it increases dramatically by an average of half a degree, returning to normal when menstruation occurs.
- If a woman has a progressive pathological process and a cycle in one phase, the rectal temperature is always unchanged, with rare unnatural jumps in indicators, when there is no clear line of rise and fall and the graph is unstable.
Among other possible additional tests and examinations, by the decision of the doctor are appointed:
- Transvaginal ultrasound, which helps in a short time to obtain information about the presence or absence of a yellow body.
- A clinical study of biomaterials in the form of blood and urine, to determine the level of concentration of certain hormones.
- Gynecological examination according to an individual scheme.
- The collection of the contents of the vagina for analysis.
- Histological examination of scraping taken from the mucous membrane in the premenstrual period.
In order for the diagnosis to be accurate, it is required to perform all medical appointments for half a year, because the anovulatory cycle can sometimes alternate with the normal one.
What to do if pathology is diagnosed? In case of progression of the anovulatory cycle, infertility can occur, so treatment is necessary. It aims to achieve ovulation stimulation and arrest the growth of the endometrium, and is carried out by a gynecologist, in tandem with which the endocrinologist performs.
Hormone therapy is prescribed according to a special regimen, with regular medication and a course break to control the level of saturation of the body with the necessary hormones. If necessary, phased stimulation of the menstrual cycle, first do the curettage of the endometrium, and then write out the gonadotropic hormones. The treatment period lasts from three months to six months.
Daily injections of progesterone are prescribed, and in case of excessive tissue growth, synthetic progestins are administered. In case of insufficiency of ovarian function, small dosages of estrogenic agents are used, which favorably affects the mucous layer of the uterus, the functioning of the ovaries and the development of follicles.
If the pathology is caused by chronic uterine inflammation, electrostimulation is performed in the form of cervical electrophoresis. Treatment of the physiological subspecies is not made when the disease coincides with age-related changes in the body such as puberty or menopause, pregnancy or breastfeeding.
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