What is a month?
It would seem that the concept of the month is familiar to everyone, but not many people are able to answer the question of what a month is. Consider the concept of the month as a unit of measurement of time.
What is called the month
By month is meant the complete revolution of the moon around the earth. It is believed that this unit of measurement originated many thousands of years ago, long before the birth of Jesus Christ. In astronomy, there are several types of months.
- The first month is synodic. It represents the time interval between the same phases of the moon, approximately 29.5 days.
- The so-called stellar month is also a period of time, which includes the full rotation of the moon around the Earth with the moon moving in the celestial sphere. The duration of the stellar month reaches 27 days.
- In the tropical month, the period of rotation of the moon around the earth is measured in longitude. Due to the peculiarity of the earth's axis, the tropical month is shorter than the stellar one. This feature is called the precession of the earth's axis. The tropical month is also approximately 27 days.
What is a calendar month
A calendar month is a period from the first day to the last day of a particular month. Note that the calendar month is often not related to astronomical months, but its origin is directly related to astronomical observations. In particular, the modern calendar months originated from the lunar and solar-lunar calendars, which are actively used in Hinduism, the Chinese calendars, among Muslims and Jews. In these calendars, the number of days in a month ranges from 29 to 30.
However, the founder of calendar months is traditionally considered to be Julius Caesar. Before him, the ancient Romans also used their calendar, but initially it was not 12, but 10 months in it. The names of the months were numerals. Then the names of the months were changed to the names of the gods, for example, January was named after the two-faced god Janus, February - in honor of the god of the underworld Februs.
In many ways, the ancient Roman calendar defined superstition. Initially it consisted of 304 days, but the Romans sought to fit it under the ancient Greek calendar, which consisted of 354 days.However, even numbers were considered unlucky by the Romans, so one more day had to be added to the calendar, so the calendar became 12 months old. However, in circulation, he was extremely inconvenient, it was difficult to predict weather events, and, consequently, preparation for the harvest.
How was the Julian calendar invented
In this regard, the Roman statesman Julius Caesar attempted to implement the reform of the calendar. Having been in Egypt, he considered that the Egyptian calendar is much better than the Roman one. After his visit to Egypt, he instructed astronomers to modify the Roman calendar. The process of creating the Julian calendar was led by astronomer Sozigen, but the Roman Senate, first of all, thanked Julius Caesar for creating the new calendar. The month of July was even named after him.
Note that the Julian calendar has been improved for a long time. Initially, there were no numbers in this calendar, the days were distributed among nonam, kalendam and eve. Obviously, such a system of months was very difficult to understand. She generated a lot of controversy, especially in military affairs.For example, to say the date of July 15, they said "the 17th day of the July calends", May 9th was called "7th day of the May Id." Of course, this confused many and even the chroniclers sometimes could not explain the meaning of the concepts. In military affairs, it was important to act quickly and be able to plan tactics as best as possible. Therefore, the preservation of such a system could not be considered. And since Julius Caesar was a commander who was highly respected by the Senate, he was able to carry out other calendar reforms that successfully took root among the civilian population and the military.
Thus, the Julian calendar has undergone major changes, but its common features have been preserved, and to this day many countries use it. It should be noted that the Julian calendar is not accurate. It is 11 minutes 14 seconds behind the tropical year, in terms of chronology it is 128 years for one day. However, its main advantage over other calendars is ease of handling.
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